양평콜걸✯예약-양평포항 모텔 추천《양평전립선 마사지》╨「양평광양 마사지」➢양평강남 전립선 마사지♀양평칭다오 마사지■양평포항 마사지↞양평구리 마사지☼양평혼자 안마방

As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

양평콜걸ク24시출장샵↼양평포항 모텔 추천《양평전주 모텔 가격》▥「양평불법 마사지」﹌양평안마방 골뱅이☽양평산본 마사지 후기▫양평모텔출장마사지샵♘양평안마방 못쌈▶양평용산구 안마방

The governments of more than 190 nations 경산한국 마사지 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

양평콜걸⇅예약금없는출장샵┐양평포항 모텔 추천《양평서양 마사지 토렌트》☆「양평엄마와 딸 마사지」╘양평검빛 경마 검색☱양평태국 마사지 야동┉양평은평구 마사지↷양평모텔┌양평전주 마사지 추천

Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

양평콜걸☵예약금없는출장샵♫양평포항 모텔 추천《양평만남》♩「양평천안 대딸방」マ양평아가씨 썰タ양평전립선 마사지 후기▌양평마사지 야동 토렌트♟양평모텔 보도❈양평구리 안마방

Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 대전출장안마 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

양평콜걸❦출장부르는법▧양평포항 모텔 추천《양평시흥 마사지》ス「양평안마방 강남」✯양평송파 마사지◐양평오창 마사지▨양평타이 마사지 서비스█양평인도 마사지↬양평출장만남

They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 태안공항신도시 마사지 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

양평콜걸チ예약금없는출장샵┤양평포항 모텔 추천《양평오일 마사지》£「양평양평 마사지」ト양평울산 동구 마사지⇞양평마사지 단속 시간↥양평광주 여관㊣양평구미 모텔 가격▄양평텔레그램 야동

No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 구미출장안마 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

양평콜걸양평마사지 앱

  • 진주봉천 안마방
  • 양평안마방 나이대
  • 양평콜걸
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    양평콜걸◐예약⇄양평포항 모텔 추천《양평오피스 걸》○「양평구의 마사지」☻양평대전 출장▥양평면목동 안마방╧양평역출장안마☏양평익산 안마방╌양평자궁 마사지

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 태백백석동 마사지 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 카지노사이트 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    인제익산 안마방 대구출장샵 보은안마방 경찰
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 진주출장안마 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    양평콜걸♨24시출장샵☏양평포항 모텔 추천《양평장한평 안마방》➽「양평안마방 대딸」┬양평영천 마사지√양평출장색시미녀언니♠양평대전 유성 안마방☻양평태국 마사지 가격↰양평구미 봉곡동 마사지

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 옥천화성 마사지 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    양평콜걸☠예약금없는출장샵◈양평포항 모텔 추천《양평안마방 실사》╋「양평시각장애인 마사지」⊿양평호텔 출장♧양평진주 가격⇌양평일본에서 한국녀섭외 마사지╠ 양평콜걸샵☊양평타이 마사지 서비스

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 부산출장샵 .

    성주팔자주름 마사지
    양평중랑구 마사지 창원출장안마 김해범계역 안마방
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    양평콜걸◥예약┻양평포항 모텔 추천《양평수유 안마방》╖「양평판교 마사지」⇪양평답십리 마사지➹양평안마방 추천➛양평마곡 마사지♤양평대만 마사지◊양평출장 타이마사지

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 부산출장안마 .

    양평콜걸┓24시출장샵♀양평포항 모텔 추천《양평성인마사지》θ「양평유성 안마방 후기」⊿양평전주 타이 마사지▽양평주안 안마방ニ양평씨엠립 마사지☂양평송강동 마사지▼양평안마방 후기

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 부산출장안마 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 함평신당동 안마방 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    양평콜걸»출장부르는법ν양평포항 모텔 추천《양평서현역 안마방》㊣「양평정관 마사지」☃양평서울 출장ル양평출장안마야한곳✕양평천안 대딸방➻양평섹슈얼 마사지✉양평타이 마사지 토렌트

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    양평콜걸⇍예약☃양평포항 모텔 추천《양평방콕 마사지》✔「양평심천 마사지」τ양평안마방 나무⇉양평안면 비대칭 마사지╬양평fc2 일본 마사지✉양평광진구 안마방➳양평부산 서면 출장

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 충청남도성인 마사지 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 온라인카지노 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 천안출장샵 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 통영경산 사우나 마사지 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 대구출장안마 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    양평콜걸♫출장부르는법✐양평포항 모텔 추천《양평타이 마사지 ㅁㅁㄹ》♘「양평텀블러 여관」ヨ양평사우나 마사지⇔양평중국 마사지 후기☛양평기흥구청 마사지ウ양평출장오피➦양평원주 안마방

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 카지노사이트 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 구미출장안마 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 카지노사이트 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    양평콜걸큐예약금없는출장샵♤양평포항 모텔 추천《양평정자역 안마방》█「양평스포츠 마사지」⇞양평김해 모텔 추천┑양평여성 전신 마사지☞양평신림역 안마방☪양평눈 마사지 기계웃양평마사지방

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    계룡서양 마사지 fc2
    구미출장안마 전주안양 안마방 loveyangju.xyz
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    양평콜걸»예약シ양평포항 모텔 추천《양평타이마사지 ㅁㅁㄹ》﹌「양평얼굴 경락 마사지」ⓞ양평마사지 테라피➹양평안마방 마무리➹양평김천 마사지┆양평칭다오 마사지❤양평안마

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.양평콜걸양평전신 마사지♨양평남친 마사지⇟「양평초대남 마사지」양평안마방 가격↿양평공항신도시 마사지フ양평안마방 퇴폐❥양평안마방 얼마☷온라인카지노24시출장샵양평신당동 안마방↷양평마사지 성추행⇠[양평안마방 나이대]양평천호동 마사지☼양평오산 안마방ヌ양평한국 마사지 야동▣양평수안보 안마방❣양평콜걸횡성삼산동 마사지양평포항 마사지 후기╛양평마사지 추천⇜【양평대만 호텔 마사지】양평잠실 안마방➨양평마포구 안마방♦양평향남 마사지↢양평속초 여관▶양평모텔 보도»양평콜걸 후기↕〈양평상무지구 안마방〉양평마사지 홈런⊿양평에이미 성인⇡양평홍성 안마방♨양평김해 모텔 추천➴양평영일대 마사지▲양평안마방 모텔◢[양평노량진 마사지]양평다낭 밤문화 마사지►양평유선 마사지⇛양평맹인 마사지╔양평종아리 마사지 기계✍양평가락시장 마사지√양평안마방 아침♭〔양평일본 마사지 노모〕양평전립선 마사지 야동┓양평안마방 엉덩이↺양평여관 아가씨➸양평휴게텔 안마방↷예약금없는출장샵거창영화 히든 토렌트예약양평gigi rivera 마사지◇양평여성 전신 마사지➛「양평주안 여관」양평김포 타이 마사지☈양평군산 터미널 모텔✗양평오피걸┗양평도쿄 안마방←양평콜걸양평콜걸대구출장안마양평서울샵양평연산동 마사지양평소라넷 안마방양평베이징 마사지양평콜걸양평안마방 초이스✿양평필리핀 안마방✁(양평주안 마사지)양평안마방 누드✕양평ace anma╗양평20대 안마방ⓥ양평스포츠 마사지╥안동승무원 마사지

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.